OpenNESS Glossary beginning with I
Negative or positive effect on individuals, society and/or environmental resources resulting from environmental change.
An indicator in policy is a metric of a policy-relevant phenomenon used to set environmental goals and evaluate their fulfilment. (cf. Heink & Kowarik, 2010).
An indicator in science is a quantifiable metric which reflects a phenomenon of interest (the indicandum).
- Indirect Use Value
The benefits derived from the goods and services provided by an ecosystem that are used indirectly by an economic agent. For example, an agent at some distance from an ecosystem may derive benefits from drinking water that has been purified as it passed through the ecosystem. (Compare Direct use value.)
(Informal) The conventions, norms and rules that formally or informally regulate the interactions between people and between people and their environment.
- Institutional Analysis
An analysis of the rules regulating the behaviour people, groups or organizations, paying attention to formal regulations and laws and/or informal rules about customs and practices. The interest lies in what rules have produced current behaviour, or what rules might produce targeted behaviour. Institutional analysis merges approaches from law, economics and organizational studies.
- Instrumental Value
*Value that something has as a means to an end (e.g. game animals used for food).
- Integrated Coastal Zone Management
Approaches that integrate economic, social, and ecological perspectives for the management of coastal resources and areas.
- Integrated Responses
- Intensification / Disintensification
Intensification of agricultural land use aims at raising crop yields per unit area and per unit time, in other words to increase productivity. To achieve this goal, usually the inputs, labour or capital (in terms of fertilizers, pesticides, energy, or technology) are increased. To raise crop yields, a broad range of methods is being applied, often in combinations, including breeding, irrigation, organic and inorganic fertilization, green manure and cover crops, pest and weed management, multi-cropping, crop rotation and the reduction of fallow periods.
The act of combining of two or more academic disciplines into one integrated activity to create new insights by crossing knowledge boundaries and linking ideas.
- Intermediate Ecosystem Service
An ecological function or process not used directly by a beneficiary, but which underpins those final ecosystem services which are used directly. See also supporting services and ecological functions.
- Intrinsic Value
*Intrinsic value is the value something has independent of any interests attached to it by an observer or potential user. This does not necessarily mean that such values are independent of a valuer (i.e. values which exist 'as such'), they may also require a (human) valuer (but this is a matter of disagreement among philosophers).